Saturday, November 30, 2013

Sand Creek Massacre

Library, State Historical Society of Colorado
This rare photograph by an unknown photographer shows the ill-fated Cheyenne chief, Black Kettle, and a number of his associated at Camp Weld, on the outskirts of Denver. They had assembled there on September 28, 1864, for a peace council with Governor Evans and Colonel John M. Chivington, commander of the District of Colorado. Some of the identifications are uncertain. Pictured in the front row, kneeling, from left are: Major Edward W. Wynkoop, commander at Fort Lyon and later agent for the Cheyennes and Arapahoes; Captain Silas S. Soule, provost marshal, later murdered in Denver. Pictured in the middle row, seated, from left, are: White Antelope (or perhaps White Wolf), Bull Bear, Black Kettle, One Eye, Natame (Arapaho). Pictured in the back row, standing, from left are: Colorado militiaman, unknown civilian, John H. Smith (interpreter), Heap of Buffalo (Arapaho), Neva (Arapaho), unknown civilian, sentry. Another identification states that Neva is seated on the left and the Indian next to Smith is White Wolf (Cheyenne).


Native History: Sand Creek Massacre Devastates Tribes, Intensifies Warfare

11/29/13
This Date in Native History: On November 29, 1864, Cheyenne Chief White Antelope sang his death song as some 200 Arapaho and Cheyenne were massacred by Colorado Volunteers of the U.S. Army at Sand Creek in southeastern Colorado Territory. The Indians had been promised safety by the military and some even gathered futilely under the Stars and Stripes hoisted at the encampment above a white flag of peace.
Studio portrait of three Cheyenne chiefs—White Antelope, Alights On The Cloud and Little Chief—photographed in Washington, D.C. in 1852 by American photographer John H. Fitzgibbon. (British Museum, London)
Studio portrait of three Cheyenne chiefs—White Antelope, Alights On The Cloud and Little Chief—photographed in Washington, D.C. in 1852 by American photographer John H. Fitzgibbon. (British Museum, London)
In a bitterly cold dawn, about 700 members of the Third Regiment of Colorado Volunteers rode through the camp in a sneak attack, shooting mostly women, children and elderly in an hours-long frenzy. Many of the victims’ bodies were mutilated by soldiers—some of them said to be drunk—and disfigured remains were paraded through the streets of Denver to jubilation and applause.
In the months immediately before the massacre, freight from the east to Denver was largely at a standstill as Indians disrupted travel in an attempt to ward off further intrusion. Flour was $45 a sack and other prices skyrocketed, adding to the hysteria fanned by Indian-war proponents. Another impetus to violence, the scalped remains of a family of four from near Denver were brought to the city for display, although whether they were killed by Indians has been disputed.
Chief Black Kettle (Wikimedia Commons)
Chief Black Kettle (Wikimedia Commons)
Before Sand Creek, the Cheyenne were still recovering from an 1849 cholera epidemic that killed nearly half the tribe, and they were receiving conflicting signals from the U.S. Army. Although Army Col. John Chivington and Territorial Gov. John Evans did not accept Indians’ commitments to peace, Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle nevertheless agreed to a camp at Sand Creek believing he had a promise of safety from Army Major Edward Wynkoop.
The seeds of conflict first emerged in the invasion of the tribes’ ancestral homelands by increasing numbers of white settlers and the hordes of the western gold rush. Although the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 promised vast lands to the Arapaho and Cheyenne to discourage warfare, the pressure of white encroachment resulted in a new treaty and tribal anger about the much smaller reservation that resulted. Added to that and other grievances, Chivington, a Methodist minister who later commanded the soldiers at Sand Creek, recognized violence against Indians as a way to enhance the political clout he hoped would make him a delegate to the U.S. Congress after Colorado Territory achieved statehood—which, ironically, was delayed 12 years, partly because of national horror at the massacre.
A painting by Robert Lindeaux depicts the dawn sneak attack on an unsuspecting encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho people, mostly women, children and elderly, at Sand Creek in southeastern Colorado. The U.S. Army commander of the Third Regiment of Colorado Volunteers, Col. John Chivington, failed in plans to use a Sand Creek “victory “as a pathway to a Congressional seat. (History Colorado)
A painting by Robert Lindeaux depicts the dawn sneak attack on an unsuspecting encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho people, mostly women, children and elderly, at Sand Creek in southeastern Colorado. The U.S. Army commander of the Third Regiment of Colorado Volunteers, Col. John Chivington, failed in plans to use a Sand Creek “victory “as a pathway to a Congressional seat. (History Colorado)
To further his political ends, Chivington’s troops became the “Bloody Thirdsters” instead of the “Bloodless Third” as they had earlier been termed publicly because the 100-day enlistees had not seen combat before Sand Creek.
The legacy of the murder at Sand Creek included angry retaliation by survivors immediately and into the future, including in the Battle of the Little Bighorn 12 years later. After the massacre, young men of the Cheyenne, Arapaho and Sioux gathered in the northeast corner of Colorado Territory where they killed travelers in wagon trains and soldiers from a nearby fort and devastated Julesburg twice. But over the long term, the deaths of chiefs and headmen at Sand Creek damaged the social structure of the tribes, disrupting tribal societies and leadership through the years.
Chivington gave testimony to Congress about the massacre, but he could not be court-martialed because he had been relieved of his command after the Sand Creek tragedy and was discharged from military service.

The Prophecy of the 8th Fire

Elder's Meditation of the Day November 30


Elder's Meditation of the Day November 30
"Someone must speak for them. I do not see a delegation for the four footed. I see no seat for eagles. We forget and we consider ourselves superior, but we are after all a mere part of the Creation."
--Oren Lyons, ONONDAGA
Whenever we make decisions, we need to look around to see who would be affected. If we change the course of a river, who, what will be affected? If we put poison on the gardens, who, what will be affected? If wee cut the trees and too many are cut, who, what will be affected? We need to become aware of the consequences of our actions. We need to pay attention to our thoughts. We are accountable to our children to leave the Earth in good shape.
My Creator, help me make right decisions

Friday, November 29, 2013

Way of the Indian

National Day of Mourning

Elder's Meditation of the Day November 29


Elder's Meditation of the Day November 29
"Life, the circle, a measurement with no beginning and no end."
--Phillip Deere, MUSKOGEE-CREEK
The circle teaches us how the Creator made things and how to live. It teaches us how we should look at creation. Life travels in a circle. In the East is the baby, to the South is the youth, in the West is the adult and in the North is the Elder. Then we return to the Earth Mother to start the cycle again. We observe what is `around us' from the center of the circle. This develops our point of view. We must be careful not to become self-centered.
Great Spirit, let me observe life from the circle's point of view.

Thanksgiving eagle

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Native History: Custer Attacks Peaceful Cheyenne in Oklahoma

Native History: Custer Attacks Peaceful Cheyenne in Oklahoma

11/27/13
This Date in Native History: On November 27, 1868, Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer led an early morning attack on a band of peaceful Cheyenne living in western Oklahoma.
The surprise attack, known as the Battle of the Washita River, is hailed as one of the first substantial American victories in the wars against the Southern Plains Indians.
“Prior to this, the Southern Plains Indians—the Cheyenne and Arapaho, the Kiowa and Comanche—they were running circles around the Army,” said Joel Shockley, a park guide at Washita Battlefield National Historic Site. “At the time, the Cheyenne and Arapaho were known as the fiercest Indians in the area.”
Custer, touted as a Civil War hero, had been suspended for one year after being convicted of desertion and mistreatment of soldiers. Ten months into this punishment, he was reinstated to lead a campaign against Cheyenne Indians who had raided settlements in Kansas and Oklahoma.
Chief Black Kettle (Wikimedia Commons)
Chief Black Kettle (Wikimedia Commons)
Custer and 150 men of the 7thU.S. Cavalry attacked at dawn on November 27, after marching all night, said Shockley, who is Choctaw and Cherokee. Their target was a camp of about 300 Cheyenne living with Chief Black Kettle, who almost exactly four years earlier had survived the dawn massacre at Sand Creek, in Colorado.
In his field report, Custer stated that three of his four columns charged as one, and that “there was never a more complete surprise. My men charged the village and reached the lodges before the Indians were aware of our presence.”
Custer rode a black stallion that morning, historian Mary Jane Warde wrote in her 2003 book,Washita. After shooting one Cheyenne man, Custer took a position on a knoll to watch the battle. In his field report, he described the scene.
“The lodges and all their contents were in our possession within 10 minutes after the charge was ordered,” he wrote. “But the real fighting, such as has rarely been equaled in Indian warfare, began when attempting to clear out or kill the warriors posted in ravines and underbrush; charge after charge was made, and most gallantly too, but the Indians had resolved to sell their lives as dearly as possible.”
Within a few hours of the attack, Custer’s men had destroyed the village and killed as many as 103 Cheyenne, including Black Kettle and his wife, Medicine Woman. Custer then ordered his men to destroy “everything of value to the Indians,” Warde wrote. That included slaughtering more than 800 horses and mules.
The Seventh U.S. Cavalry charging into Black Kettle's village at daylight, November 27, 1868. (Library of Congress)
The Seventh U.S. Cavalry charging into Black Kettle's village at daylight, November 27, 1868. (Library of Congress)
Custer calculated the number of human deaths by asking each of his men how many people he killed, Shockley said. By the time Custer returned to Fort Hayes, the count had risen to 140.
“Custer was trying to redeem himself with the Army,” Shockley said. “It is believed that many of these officers counted the same people two or three times.”
Cheyenne estimates put the death toll much lower, Shockley said. The tribe reported 50 to 60 people were killed, including 12 women and six children.
Of the 53 people taken captive, most were women and children. Custer likely used the hostages as “human shields,” a strategy he used often during the Indian wars and wrote about in his 1874 book,My Life on the Plains: Or, Personal Experiences with Indians.
Although the incident is called a battle, it was more of a massacre, Shockley said. Custer’s orders were to go to the Washita River and follow it until he found the hostile Indians.
Before he reached the hostile group, however, he discovered Black Kettle and his peaceful village. Black Kettle was leading his people to reservation land and out of harm’s way, Shockley said. “The irony is that Custer basically stumbled on him.”


Library of Congress
Cheyenne captives following the attack on Washita by Custer’s forces. Most of the Cheyenne captives are visible in this photograph, taken at Fort Dodge en route to the stockade at Fort Hays, Kansas; to the left stands U.S. Army chief of scouts John O. Austin.

Read more athttp://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2013/11/27/native-history-custer-attacks-peaceful-cheyenne-oklahoma-152416

Read more athttp://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2013/11/27/native-history-custer-attacks-peaceful-cheyenne-oklahoma-152416

Pictures....

Elder's Meditation of the Day November 27


Elder's Meditation of the Day November 27
"The Natural Law is a spiritual law. Its powers are both light and dark."
--Oren R. Lyons, Spokesman Traditional Circle of Elders
There are some characteristics that are evident in the system which the Creator made. He made balance, harmony, and polarity. In other words, every (+) plus has a (-) minus. Every positive has a negative; every up has a down; every problem has a solution. The Spiritual Law is the same - it has light and dark. Both are good, so both need to be honored. Lessons can be learned on both sides.
Great Spirit, teach me the powers of the Natural Laws.

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

700,000-Year-Old Horse Found in Yukon

700,000-Year-Old Horse Found in Yukon Permafrost Yields Oldest DNA Ever Decoded

Blake de PastinoNov 19,201318 Comments
The frozen remains of a horse more than half a million years old have reluctantly given up their genetic secrets, providing scientists with the oldest DNA ever sequenced.
The horse was discovered in 2003 in the ancient permafrost of Canada’s west-central Yukon Territory, not far from the Alaskan border.
Przewalski's Horse
The Przewalski’s Horse, which lives on the steppes of central Asia, likely deviated from the lineage leading to modern domesticated horses some 50,000 years ago. (Photo: Joe Ravi)
And although the animal was dated to between 560,000 and 780,000 years old, an international team of researchers was able to use a new combination of techniques to decipher its genetic code.
Among the team’s findings is that the genus Equus — which includes all horses, donkeys, and zebras — dates back more than 4 million years, twice as long ago as scientists had previously believed.
“When we started the project, everyone — including us, to be honest — thought it was impossible,” said Dr. Ludovic Orlando of the University of Copenhagen, who coordinated the research, in a statement to Western Digs.
“And it was to some extent, with the methods available by then. So it’s clearly methodological advances that made this possible.”
Orlando and his colleagues published their findings this summer in the journal Nature; he discussed them today in a lecture at The Royal Society, London.
Previous to this, the oldest genome ever sequenced was of a 120,000-year-old polar bear — no small feat considering that the half-life of a DNA molecule is estimated to be about 521 years. By this reckoning, even under the best conditions, DNA could remain intact for no more than 6.8 million years.
But Orlando’s team was able to make the most of what they had for a number of reasons, he said.

The fact that the remains were frozen helped slow the rate of decay. But they also “targeted specific DNA preservation niches,” he said, like the protein called collagen found in the animal’s bones, which is more DNA-rich than other tissues.
“But also we pioneered the usage of what is called true Single Molecular Sequencing that basically reads through molecules as they stand, without further manipulation,” Orlando added. By tracking a full, single DNA molecule, the team was able to avoid having to “amplify” fragments, which can often introduce errors.
To get a better sense of what this new, ancient genome held, Orlando’s team compared it against that of a 43,000-year-old horse, plus modern domestic horse breeds, and finally the Przewalski’s horse, an equid that makes its home on the Asian steppes and holds the title as the last surviving population of wild horses.
horse fossil
Two pieces of the 700,000 year-old horse metapodial bone, just before being extracted for ancient DNA. Photo: © Ludovic Orlando
These full-genome comparisons allowed the scientists to construct “a molecular clock” that can reveal benchmarks in the horse’s evolutionary history, Orlando said.
And first among its revelations is that the shared ancestor of all horses, donkeys, and zebras lived more than 4 million years ago.
“So basically we know that members of the genus Equus are at least twice as old as previously believed,” he said.
The comparisons also shed light on genetic variations, and therefore population size, over time, Orlando noted, revealing “bursts of expansion” during cooler periods as grasslands grew, and contractions in size during times of warming.
[Learn more about how global warming  affected the size of prehistoric mammals: "Prehistoric Global Warming Caused Dwarfism in American Mammals, Fossils Show"]
The next, most obvious subject for these DNA-decoding techniques are early human ancestors, he said.
Methods like those used on the ancient horse could be applied to determine, for example, how human species like Homo heidelbergensis may have been related genetically to Homo neandertalensis and modern humans, he said.
“Basically genomes of that age will enable us to test the validity of the many paleontological species in our family tree,” he said, “and to determine how they relate to each other, and whether they exchanged genes or not.”
“It’s not the future,” he said of whether this technology is in reach. “It’s basically already there.”

Indian Cell Phone

Purple Aura

Purple
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Purple
Your Aura is Purple!
Personality: Purples hold themselves to sky high standards, and are always very graceful. Purple is envied, idolized, and copied without even realizing it. They are an icon for those who know you. While it is hard to be a perfectionist, rest assured it’s paying off! Purple is the most down to earth aura, they are the typical guy or gal next door. Purples may think they are better than others but deep inside they know they are not. Purple is very practical. Other auras take a liking intopurple. Idealistic and thoughtful, they have the mind and ideas to change the world. Purple has the charisma of a great leader.Purple always seems to know what to say or do in every situation they are confronted with. They exercise good judgment daily. They don’t agonize too much about their decisions, the right answer just seems to come to them. Purples have one of the most active imaginations, but tend to be more focused on what could be potentially possible than dreaming about the impossible.Purples live a well balanced life and prefer to stay as calm as possible.Having a personality color purple or violet as your favourite color means you are sensitive and compassionate, understanding and supportive, thinking of others before yourself. You are a gentle and free spirit. Purples feelings run deep and you can be quite sensitive to hurtful comments from others, although you would never show it. People are drawn to your charismatic and alluring energy. You are usually introverted rather than extroverted and may give the impression of being shy although this is not the case. You are creative and like to be individual in most of your endeavours, including your dress and home decoration - you love the unconventional. You are idealistic, and often impractical, with a great imagination, Purples tend to look at life through rose-colored glasses. People who don't understand you sometimes think you are eccentric because you spend so much time in your fantasy world. You inspire others with your creative thinking and your ability to deal positively with adversity. Purples are very intuitive and quite psychic. You are a generous giver, asking for little in return except friendship. You can be secretive, with even your closest friends not really knowing you well. You dislike responsibility and have difficulty dealing with real day-to-day problems. You dislike being part of the crowd. You don't like to copy others and you don't like them to copy you. You are a visionary, with high ambitions, dreams and desires, and a compulsion to help humanity and to improve the planet earth. You often hold positions of power because you are visionary, but you delegate to others all the minor details that you aren't interested in. You like to have the best of everything, so you aim high. Being the free spirit you are, you love to travel to experience different cultures and meet new people. You are a good judge of character and sum others up quite quickly and accurately, although you usually see the best in everybody. Time means little to you and you are often late for everything. You trust the flow of the Universe to take care of everything. You can sometimes appear arrogant and conceited if operating from a negative perspective. You can be selfish and self-indulgent as you don't like being imposed upon by others beliefs and regulations.
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Love Life:
 You're very passionate but often too busy for love. You need a partner who sees your vision and adopts it as their own
Yellow: Way to immature to meet our standards!
 
Pink: If outgoingness is on our “Have to have list” pinks are also one of the top choices for Purples
Green: Greens are way too shy and may be overlooked
Blue: Blue is one of the others that may meet our standards. They are deep and Sincere and is an awesome mate!
OrangeCan be just a little bit more mature than Yellow, but nawh I think we’ll pass
White: Way deep inside purples may have this strange feeling for whites 
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Perfect Color Love Match: 
Red is the perfect mate for a purple they meet every standard of ours.
Friendship Color: Blue is the perfect friend for a purple due to there introvert attitude
Color Opposite: Your color wheel opposite is Yellow. While yellow people may be wise, they lack the manners and class needed to impress you
 
Words that Describe Purple: Intuitive, Seeking, Creative, Kind, Self-Sacrificing. Growth Oriented, Strong, Very Wise, and Rare
 
Purpose of Life: Saying Truths That Other People Dare Not Say
Browse more quizzes: Personality   True Color Aura Pink Yellow 

Beautiful.........






Elder's Meditation of the Day November 26


Elder's Meditation of the Day November 26
"In our traditional ways, the woman is the foundation of the family."
--Haida Gwaii Traditional Circle of Elders
We must pay attention to the role of the woman in the family. She is the heartbeat of the family. She should be respected and treated in a sacred manner. We should listen to her guidance. We should help make her role easier by helping with chores or just telling her how much we appreciate her.
Great Spirit, I ask you to bless all the moms.

Monday, November 25, 2013

Elder's Meditation of the Day November 25


Elder's Meditation of the Day November 25
"People and nations who understand the Natural Law are self-governing, following the principles of love and respect that insure freedom and peace."
--Traditional Circle of Elders, NAVAJO-HOPI Joint Use Area
The Natural Laws work hand-in-hand with the circle. Each part of a circle will look to the center and will see something different. For example, if you put an irregular shaped object in the center of a circle and you have people standing in a circle around the object, each one will describe it differently. Everyone in the circle will be right. Only by honoring and respecting everyone's input, can the truth about the object be revealed. We need to learn to honor differences.
My Creator, let me honor all differences.

Spirit in the Mountains

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Elder's Meditation of the Day November 24


Elder's Meditation of the Day November 24
"Things would go well for us if we would think positively about everything."
--Mary Hayes, CLAOQUOT
Each of our thoughts are like individual seeds. These thoughts will plant our life garden. Whatever our thoughts, they grow in our gardens. Each day we will process about 50,000 thoughts or thought seeds. Positive thoughts will produce positive results. Have you ever been aware of what you are thinking about during the day? Of the possible 50,000 thoughts in one day - if the positive thoughts were flowers and the negative thoughts were weeds - how would your garden look at the end of the day?
Great Spirit, let me plant positive seeds.

Elder's Meditation of the Day November 24


Elder's Meditation of the Day November 24
"Things would go well for us if we would think positively about everything."
--Mary Hayes, CLAOQUOT
Each of our thoughts are like individual seeds. These thoughts will plant our life garden. Whatever our thoughts, they grow in our gardens. Each day we will process about 50,000 thoughts or thought seeds. Positive thoughts will produce positive results. Have you ever been aware of what you are thinking about during the day? Of the possible 50,000 thoughts in one day - if the positive thoughts were flowers and the negative thoughts were weeds - how would your garden look at the end of the day?
Great Spirit, let me plant positive seeds.