Saturday, December 21, 2013

Native History: Indians Defeat Army to Protect Bozeman Trail

Native History: Indians Defeat Army to Protect Bozeman Trail

This Date in Native History: On December 21, 1866, the U.S. Army suffered its third largest defeat during the Indian Wars. Only the battle with George Armstrong Custer at Little Bighorn and the 1791 battle between Chief Little Turtle, Miami Tribe, and General St. Clair—where 600 Army men died—were larger. All 81 cavalrymen and infantrymen died in an intense fight that lasted just 40 minutes.
The history leading up to this fight started three years earlier, in the spring of 1863. The Bozeman Trail was constructed, leading north from Fort Laramie on the old Oregon Trail into the gold fields of Montana. This brought the trail and its hoard of immigrants right through what had once been the homeland of the Crow, later the Shoshone, and then the Teton Sioux. This is the Powder River country of what is now Wyoming. It was open land but good land as game was abundant and fruits and berries grew along the waterways.
Some chiefs were determined to close the Bozeman Trail. Indian attacks became more common and travel was risky. Then U.S. soldiers were brought in to guard the trail. Perhaps what really ended negotiations was the plan to build Fort Kearny with orders to guard the Bozeman Trail.
Two Sioux Indian leaders, highly regarded and remembered today, vowed to fight any white man using the Bozeman Trail—Red Cloud and Crazy Horse. The first raid on the fort occurred on July 16 resulting in two deaths. Attacks on wagon trains happened frequently, but work continued on the fort. Two more of the military died on December 6 and gave the Sioux the belief they could overpower any assignment from the fort.
This image by J.C.H. Grabill shows Red Cloud and American Horse. (J.C.H. Grabill/Library of Congress)
This image by J.C.H. Grabill shows Red Cloud and American Horse. (J.C.H. Grabill/Library of Congress)
Indian warriors were becoming increasingly confident in part due to a medicine man who had four visions of increasing numbers of dead soldiers. The fourth vision showed that 100 soldiers would die.
December 21, 1866: A wagon train was sent out from the fort to return with wood. Less than an hour later they were attacked by a decoy party of Indians. The regimental commander, Colonel Carrington, had warned his troops not to be fooled by a trap, something he had seen employed by the Indians before. The relief force to help the wood train was led by Captain Fetterman who had little respect for the Indians and had commented earlier that a company of regular soldiers could whip a thousand Indians, a big mistake as he was about to find out.
Captain Fetterman, who underestimated the fighting ability of Indians, disobeyed orders, and died in the battle. (Fort Phil Kearny/Bozeman Trail Association)
Captain Fetterman, who underestimated the fighting ability of Indians, disobeyed orders, and died in the battle. (Fort Phil Kearny/Bozeman Trail Association)
Fetterman wanted a fight, and the Indians were ready. There might have been as many as 2,000, mostly Sioux with some Cheyennes and Arapahos, waiting out of sight on the backside of Lodge Trail Ridge. Red Cloud is thought to have been in that huge group of warriors. A second decoy party approached the fort and drew artillery fire. Crazy Horse was part of that party. The man responsible for the plan was High-Back-Bone, a Minneconjou Sioux.
The initial decoy party retreated up Lodge Trail Ridge where decoys were standing, yelling and gesturing at the soldiers. When the soldiers reached the top of the ridge they likely only saw a few Indians near Peno Creek in the valley below. It was now about noon. As the troops approached the valley, the huge force of Indians stood in the high grass and firing commenced. Most of the Indians were shooting arrows, but that was more than enough. Just 40 minutes later all the military troops were dead, including Fetterman who had once said that a regiment could whip the whole array of hostile tribes.
As many as 40,000 arrows were released in that 40-minute span—it was an overwhelming victory, second only to Little Bighorn, but 60 Indian warriors also died.
Attacks along the Bozeman Trail continued and only heavily armed military trains were able to pass along the trail. In 1868 the three forts guarding the Bozeman Trail, including Fort Kearny, were abandoned and Indians burned them to the ground. On November 6 of that year Red Cloud signed a peace treaty, thus ending the Bozeman Trail War, part of which was the Fetterman Massacre but called by the Sioux as the Battle of the Hundred Slain.


Rice Pudding


No one ever grows tired of rice pudding, the classic comfort food from childhood days. Dress it up for grown-ups by substituting almond extract for the vanilla extract. I like to serve this wholesome dessert topped with slices of juicy fresh peaches.
For more speedy dessert recipes, see my recently published cookbook, The Complete 15-Minute Gourmet: Creative Cuisine Made Fast and Fresh.
1 ½ cups cooked white rice (cook until soft rather than firm, cool before using)
1 ¼ cups half-and-half
3 tablespoons packed brown sugar
1 tablespoon salted butter
½ teaspoon pure vanilla extract
Pinch of salt
Combine the rice, half-and-half and sugar in a medium nonstick saucepan; bring just to a boil over medium-high heat. Reduce the heat to low; cover and cook, stirring frequently, for 10 minutes or until the cream is partially absorbed into the rice but the mixture is still very creamy.
Remove from the heat. Stir in the butter, vanilla extract, and a scant pinch of salt.
Transfer to small dessert bowls and serve warm. Or when the pudding is cool, cover the dishes with plastic wrap, and refrigerate to serve later the same day.

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 21

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 21
"He [The Great Spirit] only sketches out the path of life roughly for all the creatures on earth, shows them where to go, where to arrive, but leaves them to find their own way to get there. He wants them to act independently according to their nature, to the urges of each of them.
--Lame Deer, LAKOTA
Every person is created with purpose and with direction. This purpose and direction is written in our hearts when we are conceived. In addition, we are given access to a quiet guidance system which helps us find our purpose and our direction. We need to recognize this guidance system. It's called intuition, the quiet voice, urges, the knowing, or the feeling. Once we locate our purpose and direction, we are given skills, talents and abilities that are unique to only ourselves. We must practice daily prayer and meditation with God to find this information. To be solid and confident in ourselves, we always need to be able to answer three questions: why am I?, who am I?, and where am I going? If I can answer these three questions, I always know I'm OK!
Great Spirit, show me my path of life.

Friday, December 20, 2013

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 20

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 20
"My pottery is the handiwork of God."
--Teresita Naranjo, SANTA CLARA PUEBLO
The Great One has given every human being at least one special talent and one special gift. We need to develop and practice these gifts because they are the handiwork of God. Maybe we are artists-when people look at our work it puts joy in their hearts; maybe we are singers- when people listen to our songs, their hearts are happy; maybe we are writers of song or poetry-when people hear or read our work, it may change their lives. We need to honor ourselves and our gifts. We need to thank the Creator for our talents and our gifts."
My Creator, let me use my gifts to further Your work on the Earth.

Thursday, December 19, 2013

When did you stop......

~ The Week Before Christmas Poem

~ The Week Before Christmas Poem

'Twas the week before Christmas, and all through the town,
Not a sign of Baby Jesus, was anywhere to be found.
The people were all busy with Christmas time chores,
Like decorating, and baking, and shopping in stores.

No one sang, "Away in a manger, no crib for a bed."
Instead, they sang of Santa, dressed up in bright red.
Mama watched Martha Stewart, Papa drank from a tap.
As hour upon hour the presents they'd wrap.

Then what from the TV did they suddenly hear?
An ad, which told of a big sale down at Sears.
So away to the mall they all flew like a flash,
Buying some things on credit, and others with cash!

And, as they made their way home from their trip to the mall,
Did they think about Jesus? Oh, no, not at all.

Their lives were so busy with their Christmas time things,
They had no time to remember Christ Jesus, the King.
There were presents to wrap and cookies to bake.
How could they stop and remember the One who died for their sake?

To pray to the Savior, they had no time to stop.
Because they needed more time to "Shop till they drop!"
On Wal-mart! On K-mart! On Target! On Penney's!
On Hallmark! On Zales! A quick lunch at Denny's!
From the big stores downtown to the stores at the mall,
They would dash away, dash away, and visit them all!

And up on the roof, there arose such a clatter,
As grandpa hung icicle lights, using his brand new step ladder.
He hung lights that would flash. He hung lights that would twirl.
Yet, he never once prayed, to Jesus, the Light of the World.

Christ's eyes--how they twinkle!
Christ's Spirit--how merry!
Christ's love--how enormous!
All of our burdens--He'll carry!

~ So instead of being busy, overworked, and uptight.
Let's put CHRIST back in CHRISTmas, and enjoy a good night.

*God bless and keep sharing the Good News !!! ~ C4C

Don't Sell Your Saddle....

Even Santa gets a little Western!...

There's no "I" in teamwork...

Maybe once, but not now. But maybe once again.

Hemp: the most versatile plant

Hemp: the most versatile plant in the world that is still prohibited from being grown in (most of) America
The original drafts of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were written on paper derived from it. The sails of Christopher Columbus’ ship, the Santa Maria, were made of fabric spun from it. Even early U.S. currency was printed on material extracted from it: hemp, a.k.a. cannabis, the most versatile plant in the world that, despite its significance as an early Americana, is still prohibited from being grown in most of America.
Some of our regular readers may already be familiar with the historical record of hemp, including its prominent role in American industry before the days of prohibition. But this important food and fuel crop is still largely misunderstood by millions of people. Not only is industrial hemp non-psychoactive, meaning that it cannot be smoked for mood-altering purposes in the same way as other strains of cannabis, but it also happens to be one of the most versatile plants known to man.
In his book The Great Book of Hemp: The Complete Guide to the Environmental, Commercial, and Medicinal Uses of the World’s Most Extraordinary Plant, Rowan Robinson uncovers the long-lost history of hemp, highlighting its ancient use as a natural treatment for fevers, insomnia and malaria during the Middle Ages, for instance, as well as its more recent use as a fiber source for making rope, clothing, paper and other materials.hemp
“Hemp, Cannabis sativa, has been called man’s greatest plant ally,” explains the book. “It has been worshipped as a source of spiritual enlightenment and a sustainer of human life, but until recently hemp’s amazing past was virtually forgotten. Once at the foundation of civilization’s economy, it was not until the twentieth century that hemp was outlawed. But hemp is back.”


Up until the late 1930s, both hemp and cannabis were considered normal, everyday cash crops grown by farmers all across America. America’s founding fathers, in fact, grew hemp themselves, and early Reserve notes bore an image of American farmers growing and harvesting hemp. But somewhere along the way, things changed, and hemp became something of a dirty household word.
This redefinition of hemp was the product of a nationwide propaganda campaign known as “Reefer Madness,” led by newspaper mogul William Randolph Hearst, which instilled widespread fear in the minds of the public about both hemp and cannabis. It was around this same time that the demonizing term “marijuana” came into existence, a derisive slang with racist origins that ultimately led to the complete prohibition of both cannabis cultivation and use.
“Hearst was a racist who used the little-known term ‘marihuana’ to describe what had always been commonly known as cannabis or hemp,” writes Laura Kriho in a recent piece for Boulder Weekly. “Hearst ran a very effective scare campaign to convince the public that ‘Mexicans and Negroes’ were smoking a new drug called ‘marihuana’ that was causing them to rape and murder white people.”
Somehow, hemp ended up being lumped into the same category as cannabis, and the two distinct, but related, plants ended up becoming illegal, the targets of a government-led “war on drugs” that continues to this day. And the societal consequences of this prohibition have translated into billions of dollars in lost revenues for an industry that, if once again recognized as legal and properly utilized, has the potential to literally save the planet and jump start the national economy.
“Hemp is of first necessity of the wealth and protection of the country,” Thomas Jefferson, one of America’s most well-known founding fathers, once stated about the importance of hemp.


On an annual basis, 1 acre of hemp will produce as much fiber as 2 to 3 acres of cotton. Hemp fiber is stronger and softer than cotton, lasts twice as long as cotton, and will not mildew.
Cotton grows only in moderate climates and requires more water than hemp; but hemp is frost tolerant, requires only moderate amounts of water, and grows in all 50 states. Cotton requires large quantities of pesticides and herbicides–50% of the world’s pesticides/herbicides are used in the production of cotton. Hemp requires no pesticides, no herbicides, and only moderate amounts of fertilizer.
On an annual basis, 1 acre of hemp will produce as much paper as 2 to 4 acres of trees. From tissue paper to cardboard, all types of paper products can be produced from hemp.
The quality of hemp paper is superior to tree-based paper. Hemp paper will last hundreds of years without degrading, can be recycled many more times than tree-based paper, and requires less toxic chemicals in the manufacturing process than does paper made from trees.
Hemp can be used to produce fiberboard that is stronger and lighter than wood. Substituting hemp fiberboard for timber would further reduce the need to cut down our forests.
Hemp can be used to produce strong, durable and environmentally-friendly plastic substitutes. Thousands of products made from petroleum-based plastics can be produced from hemp-based composites.
It takes years for trees to grow until they can be harvested for paper or wood, but hemp is ready for harvesting only 120 days after it is planted. Hemp can grow on most land suitable for farming, while forests and tree farms require large tracts of land available in few locations. Harvesting hemp rather than trees would also eliminate erosion due to logging, thereby reducing topsoil loss and water pollution caused by soil runoff.
Hemp seeds contain a protein that is more nutritious and more economical to produce than soybean protein. Hemp seeds are not intoxicating. Hemp seed protein can be used to produce virtually any product made from soybean: tofu, veggie burgers, butter, cheese, salad oils, ice cream, milk, etc. Hemp seed can also be ground into a nutritious flour that can be used to produce baked goods such as pasta, cookies, and breads.
Hemp seed oil can be used to produce non-toxic diesel fuel, paint, varnish, detergent, ink and lubricating oil. Because hemp seeds account for up to half the weight of a mature hemp plant, hemp seed is a viable source for these products.
Just as corn can be converted into clean-burning ethanol fuel, so can hemp. Because hemp produces more biomass than any plant species (including corn) that can be grown in a wide range of climates and locations, hemp has great potential to become a major source of ethanol fuel.
Literally millions of wild hemp plants currently grow throughout the U.S. Wild hemp, like hemp grown for industrial use, has no drug properties because of its low THC content. U.S. marijuana laws prevent farmers from growing the same hemp plant that proliferates in nature by the millions.
From 1776 to 1937, hemp was a major American crop and textiles made from hemp were common. Yet, The American Textile Museum, The Smithsonian Institute, and most American history books contain no mention of hemp. The government’s War on Drugs has created an atmosphere of self censorship where speaking of hemp in a positive manner is considered politically incorrect or taboo.
United States Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew hemp, used products made from hemp, and praised the hemp plant in some of their writings.
No other natural resource offers the potential of hemp. Cannabis Hemp is capable of producing significant quantities of paper, textiles, building materials, food, medicine, paint, detergent, varnish, oil, ink, and fuel. Unlike other crops, hemp can grow in most climates and on most farmland throughout the world with moderate water and fertilizer requirements, no pesticides, and no herbicides. Cannabis Hemp (also known as Indian Hemp) has enormous potential to become a major natural resource that can benefit both the economy and the environment.
Be sure to check out The Great Book of Hemp for more information about this amazing, multi-use plant:

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 19

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 19
"Flexible strength is better than inflexible. Let the storm flow over you, and then pop back up."
--Michael Kabotie, HOPI
Flexibility is taught by nature. You will see the trees bend in the wind. You will see that tree branches are flexible. To be rigid is to break. When we have life problems it is good for us to be flexible. Sometimes we need to flow with what is going on. If we resist, it becomes more painful. We need to be on the path of least resistance. Water flows down the mountain through the path of least resistance. Electricity flows through the path of least resistance. Power flows through the path of least resistance. As Indian people our strength has always been our flexibility.
Creator, I will be flexible today because I know You are with me.

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Lakota Prayer

Chief Joseph

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 18

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 18
"Parents have to demonstrate the value of trust, respect, and honor."
--Haida Gwaii, Traditional Circle of Elders
Children learn more by watching than by listening. If we want our children to understand and value trust, they know it by watching how adults live their lives! If we want the children to be respectful, they will observe what the adults do and say to each other. We need to walk our talk. We need to remember the children are watching.
Grandfather, help me learn these important values: Trust, Respect, and Honor.


People know your name,

Monday, December 16, 2013

Christmas deer of empty toilet paper rolls

Christmas deer is our latest ECO toys for Christmas. You can make all nine deer - if you add so empty rolls ... because we proved slight problem. Easy to fold and cut stained. The only thing that is added then the red nose - it is painted cotton ball for decoration.

Rolled coils, so that it becomes flat.

Cut by watching the pattern of the first image - the red dotted line. Fold to form the back there might stick). Fluted then horns. Calf is ready. It remains to put his eyes and nose.

RIP Billy Jack

~ RIP ~ Laughlin's Billy Jack character was a heroic Native American ex-Army Green Beret who used his karate skills to fight racism and oppression. 

World Wide Full Moon Circle--- Wild Woman Sisterhood

Join our World Wide Full Moon Circle!

Almost 1900 allready do

Follow this link and sign in :

Example Moon (Circle) Ritual

The monthly lunar cycle gives you many chances to do rituals to mark a personal turning point or let go. At the New Moon, you can go into the dark and be symbolically reborn. New Moon rituals help you summon your whole Self, and in that Magic moment, commit to intentions.

At the full Moon, the energy builds and builds....there's an explosive outgoing aspect to it. All of nature grows and is more vital at the full Moon. This surge allows you to take action on behalf of those new Moon intentions you set two week prior. A full Moon ritual might involve taking one solid step, with a symbolic action. And it can be a powerful time to release, cast out, unburden yourself, purge, etc. You celebrate your emergence by stepping out of an old skin, identity, behavior, attitude, relationship. The ritual helps you by marking this inner transformation in a formal way.

A full Moon ritual might involve purification by one of the elements. Most often, it's fire, and done by casting something you don't want into the flames.

for Example:
1) Write what you're releasing down on a stick.
2) resolve to let go as you throw it into the fire.
3) Throw the stick into the fire.

This can be done as a group, with everyone sitting 'round the fire...or in your own private Ceremony. Each person can seal their action of letting go by speaking it aloud, if there's Trust in the circle.

Water can be used to cleanse in rituals. This works when we let ourselves trust each other to be open hearted and share our dreams. When that's there, you can evoke the Magic of shifting consciousness at will because the support is palpable.

Full Moon Release Ritual

Items you'll need:
Floating candles, a large bowl, water, matches, a pen.

1. Create a Sacred Space with candles, sage smudging, and setting up an altar with powerful totems.

2. If possible, stand or sit under the Moon. Allow yourself to feel a direct relationship to it, as a mover of the living waters of the Earth and within our own bodies.

3. Do a grounding exercise, to bring you out of the chatter of small talk and into ritual space. Feel the earth under your feet and shake out the tension in the body.

4. Place the large water-filled bowl in front of you, or in the middle of your gathering on a table.

5. (Each person) Write(s) what you are releasing on the floating candle. It's not important that it shows up, just that the intention is there.

6. As you place the candle into the bowl, declare what you're releasing.

7. Light the candle.

8. Allow yourself to feel the transfer of what you're releasing to the candle. As a group focus on letting go into the water, holding hands if that feels right.

9. Celebrate this release by sharing a feast under the full Moon!

Allow the candle to keep burning in the bowl as a Symbol of the letting go process. The flame is a purifier, and symbolizes the sparks of inspiration as well. If you blow out your floating candle, and your bowl is in your home, relighting it will remind you of your commitment. Place inspiring pictures and totems around it that remind you of who you're becoming. Above all, give yourself kudos for honoring your own growth.
 — with Bernadette M Stoehr.

Justice for Annie Mae Pictou Aquash , Woman Warrior

I have little patience for misogyny and the paternalistic marginalization of our missing and murdered women. I don't care who you know, what media house you work for, whose ass you are kissing or what club you belong to, it is wrong and I will go to my grave fighting and exposing the liars and appropriators of our women alone if I have to. Our women deserve better. If you are wondering WHY I have to continue to go on about my mothers execution in the spirit of other missing and murdered women at nauseam, be comforted it is NOT because it is some hysterical pain ridden narcissistic need to get attention but sadly because that marginalization and SILENCE to THIS DAY continues. Yeah it's not cool to call out our own in our own backyards, its pretty shitty and it doesn't win you any popularity contests. Those who murdered my mother with in AIM lied , they conspired, they reinvented themselves and now ride the coattails of movements like INM and clubs like LRI. Their children now carry their lies and continue the misinformation campaign using familial connections and professional choices as their fodder for argument? WTF? Seriously ? How the hell does ones adult choice of profession ( 15 years after an unsolved murder) or ones relation to that person affect the validity of the injustice of the vicious kidnapping, interrogation, rape and murder of another human being? For 28 years the AIM leadership misinformed and lied to ndn country uncontested, now the truth has been exposed and fingers will be pointed to blame others for their choices, and a cry for unity and " understanding of the era" will be their song . Well unfortunately what they did to my mother , Perry Ray Robinson, and at least 6 other human beings is UNEXCUSABLE and the crabs in the bucket will have to accept that I WILL contest it loudly and publically. Annie Mae was one of those missing and murdered women. I DO NOT UNITE with Murderers. Responsibility needs to be taken and I hold current AIM and LPDC members sympathizing with my mothers murderers responsible for addressing their leaderships in this matter. Currently AIM inc. and LPDC publically support the murderer of Annie Mae.
Like ·  ·  · 4 hours ago · 


Snow on the Pyramids Dec 2013

Snow has fallen on the pyramids of Egypt for the first time in 112 years. — with Elizabeth Sunshine Sturm,Alberto DueƱasDamian Miguel Bevers and Evon Orlando Knott.

The Blood....

We are Human Angels

Native Citizen News Network, December 14, 2011 posted on fb 16 dec 2013

38 years ago this week our mother suffered horribly at the hands of several aim woman and men as they kidnapped, interrogated, beat, raped, and murdered her on false accusations of being an informant. For decades they lied and said it was the FBI who murdered her. Leonard Peltier bragged to Annie Mae about shooting one of the FBI agents while he begged for his life. Leonard shoved a gun in her mouth during several interrogations preceeding her murder, yet says he knows nothing about her murder, meanwhile he is supporting the man charged and convicted of her murder. When questioned publically about information regarding the murder of Annie Mae, Clyde Bellecourt, who claims ownership to AIM, claims he nor his brother Vernon knew anything about the murder of Annie Mae, yet he supports the man charged and convicted of murdering Annie Mae. Russel Means says he knows who ordered the execution of Annie Mae but says he can not devulge that information because of a sacred oath he took to protect that person as long as they were living.The truth has been exposed and is now unraveling into the deepest corners and recesses of NDN country, if I were in anyway associated to any of these folks I would beware of being blindsided by more truth as some have decided that continuing the lie, and being associated with women killers is just not worth it.

The Spirit of Annie Mae - Tribute -
 — with Denise Pictou Maloney.

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 16

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 16
"If you have one hundred people who live together, and if each one cares for the rest, there is One Mind."
--Shining Arrows, CROW
One of the principles of Community is Unity. The alignment of thoughts in groups of people will cause One Mind to form. One Mind is Unity. Each individual in the community must align their thoughts with what other members are thinking. If all the people think of helping one another, then the community will be service oriented and powerful results will be enjoyed. Having our thoughts aligned within a group will cause our children to experience a positive environment. When they have children, the grandchildren will automatically experience these results also.
My Creator, help me to contribute to positive group thought.

Sunday, December 15, 2013

Hidden from History......

Call forth....

The Dakota War of 1862

The Dakota War of 1862 (also known as the Sioux Uprising, Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862, or Little Crow's War) was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of the eastern Sioux or Dakota which began on August 17, 1862, along the Minnesota River in southwest Minnesota and ended with a mass execution of 38 Dakota on December 26, 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota.

Throughout the late 1850s, treaty violations by the United States and late or unfair annuity payments by Indian agents caused increasing hunger and hardship among the Dakota. Traders with the Dakota previously had demanded that annuity payments be given to them directly (introducing the possibility of unfair dealing between the agents and the traders), but in mid-1862, the Dakota demanded the annuities directly from their agent, Thomas J. Galbraith. The traders refused to provide any more supplies on credit. Thus negotiations reached an impasse as a result of the bellicosity of the traders' representative, Andrew Myrick. On August 17, 1862, five American settlers were killed by four Dakota on a hunting expedition. That night, a council of Dakota decided to attack settlements throughout the Minnesota River valley in an effort to drive whites out of the area. Continued battles between the Dakota against settlers and later, the United States Army, ended with the surrender of most of the Dakota forces. There has never been an official report on the number of settlers killed, but estimates range from 300 to 800. By late December, more than a thousand Dakota were interned in jails in Minnesota, and 38 Dakota were hanged in the largest one-day execution in American history on December 26, 1862. In April 1863, the rest of the Dakota were expelled from Minnesota to Nebraska and South Dakota, and their reservations were abolished by the United States Congress.

Little Crow, or Taoyateduta, was the Dakota chief who led the Indian attacks in the 1862 war. He was a reluctant leader. The night before the attacks began, he attempted to talk down the war mood. But the warriors were adamant. They wanted to fight, so Little Crow agreed to lead them.

Chief Taoyateduta (Little Crow) Little Crow, or Taoyateduta, was the Dakota chief who led the Indian attacks in the 1862 war. He was a reluctant leader. The night before the attacks began, he attempted to talk down the war mood. But the warriors were adamant. They wanted to fight, so Little Crow agreed to lead them.
The grave marker of Little Crow is near Flandreau, S.D. He survived the 1862 war, but was killed the next year near Hutchinson, Minn.

The inscription reads:
Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow of the Mdewakantons.
Born 1818.
Died July 3, 1863.
Buried Sept. 27, 1971.
"Tosta nici matekte - Therefore I'll die with you."
When Minnesota became a state on May 11, 1858, representatives of several Dakota bands led by Little Crow traveled to Washington, D.C. to make negotiations about the enforcement of the treaties. The northern half of the reservation along the Minnesota River was lost, and rights to the quarry at Pipestone, Minnesota were also ceded by the Dakota. This was a major blow to the standing of Little Crow in the Dakota community.

Payments guaranteed by the treaties were not made, due to Federal preoccupation with the American Civil War. Most land in the river valley was not arable, and hunting could no longer support the Dakota community. Losing land to new white settlers, non-payment, past broken treaties, plus food shortages and famine following crop failure led to great discontent among the Dakota people. Tension increased through the summer of 1862.
On August 4, 1862, representatives of the northern Sissetowan and Wahpeton Dakota bands met at the Upper Sioux Agency in the northwestern part of the reservation and successfully negotiated to obtain food. However, when two other bands of the Dakota, the southern Mdewakanton and the Wahpekute, turned to the Lower Sioux Agency for supplies on August 15, 1862, they were rejected. Indian Agent (and Minnesota State Senator) Thomas Galbraith managed the area and would not distribute food without payment to these bands. According to legend, at a meeting of the Dakota, the United States government, and local traders, the Dakota representatives asked the representative of the government traders, Andrew Jackson Myrick, to sell them food on credit. His response, apparently, was "so far as I am concerned, let them eat grass."

On August 16, 1862, the treaty payments to the Dakota arrived in St. Paul, Minnesota, and were brought to Fort Ridgely the next day. However, it came too late to prevent violence. On August 17, 1862, four young Dakota men were on a hunting trip in Acton Township, Minnesota, where they stole food and killed five white settlers. Soon after, a Dakota war council was convened, and their leader, Little Crow, agreed to continue the attacks on the settlements in an effort to drive them out.

On August 18, 1862, Little Crow led a group that attacked the Lower Sioux (or Redwood) Agency. Andrew Myrick was among the first that was killed as he was discovered trying to escape through a second-floor window of a building at the agency. Myrick's body later was found with grass stuffed into his mouth. Buildings at the Lower Sioux Agency were taken and burned by the warriors; however, the time spent burning the buildings provided enough delay for many people to escape across the river at Redwood Ferry. Minnesota militia forces and B Company of the 5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment sent to quell the uprising were defeated at the Battle of Redwood Ferry. Twenty-four soldiers, including the party's commander (Captain John Marsh), were killed in the battle. Throughout the day, Dakota war parties swept the Minnesota River Vally and near vicinity, killing a large number of settlers. Numerous settlements, including the Townships of Milford, Leavenworth, and Sacred Heart, were surrounded, burned, and nearly exterminated.

People escaping from the Indian massacre of 1862 in Minnesota, at dinner on a prairie Confident with their initial success, the Dakota continued their offensive and attacked the settlement of New Ulm, Minnesota on August 19, 1862, and again on August 23, 1862. Dakota warriors initially decided not to attack the heavily-defended Fort Ridgely along the river and instead turned toward the town, killing settlers along the way.

By the time New Ulm itself was attacked, residents had organized defenses in the town center and were able to keep the Dakota at bay during the brief siege. However, Dakota warriors were able to penetrate parts of the defenses, and much of the town were burned.

By that evening, a thunderstorm prevented further Dakota attacks and New Ulm was reinforced by regular soldiers and militia from nearby towns (including two companies of the 5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry then stationed at Fort Ridgely), while the population continued to build barricades around the town.

During this period, Fort Ridgely was attacked by the Dakota on August 20 and 22, 1862. Although the Dakota were not able to take the fort, their ambush of a relief party from the fort to New Ulm on August 21 and the manpower expended in defense at the Battle of Fort Ridgely greatly reduced the strength of the American forces. The Dakota also undertook raids on farms and small settlements throughout south-central Minnesota and what was then eastern Dakota Territory.

Counterattacks by Minnesota militia against these raiding parties again resulted in a major defeat of American forces at the Battle of Birch Coulee on September 2, 1862. The battle began when the Dakota attacked a detachment of 150 American soldiers at Birch Coulee, 16 miles from Fort Ridgely. The detachment had been sent out to find survivors, bury the American dead, and report on the location of Dakota fighters. A three-hour firefight began with an early morning assault. Thirteen soldiers were killed and 47 were wounded, while two Dakota were killed. A column of 240 soldiers from Fort Ridgely relieved the detachment at Birch Coulee the same afternoon.

Further north, the Dakota attacked several unfortified stagecoach stops and river crossings along the Red River Trails, a settled trade route between Fort Garry (now Winnipeg, Manitoba) and Saint Paul, Minnesota in the Red River Valley in northwestern Minnesota and eastern Dakota Territory. Many settlers and employees of the Hudson's Bay Company and other local enterprises in this sparsely populated country took refuge in Fort Abercrombie, located in a bend of the Red River of the North about 25 miles south of present day Fargo, North Dakota. Between late August and late September, the Dakota launched several attacks on Fort Abercrombie which were repelled by its defenders.

In the meantime, steamboat and flatboat trade on the Red River came to a halt, and mail carriers, stage drivers and military couriers were killed while attempting to reach settlements such as Pembina, North Dakota, Fort Garry, St. Cloud, Minnesota and Fort Snelling. Eventually the garrison at Fort Abercrombie was relieved by a United States Army company from Fort Snelling and the civilian refugees were removed to St. Cloud.

After the arrival of a larger army force, the final large-scale fighting took place at the Battle of Wood Lake on Sept 23, 1862. According to the official report of Lt. Col. William R. Marshall of the 7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment, elements of the 7th Minnesota and the 6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment (and a six-pounder cannon) were deployed equally in dugouts and in a skirmish line. After brief fighting, the forces in the skirmish line charged against the Dakota (then in a ravine) and defeated them overwhelmingly

Among the Citizen Soldier units in Sibley's expedition:

Captain Joseph F. Bean's Company "The Eureka Squad"
Captain David D. Lloyd's Company
Captain Calvin Potter's Company of Mounted Men
Captain Mark Hendrick's Battery of Light Artillery
1st Lt Christopher Hansen's Company "Cedar Valley Rangers" of the 5th Iowa State Militia, Mitchell Co, Iowa
elements of the 5th & 6th Iowa State Militia

Most Dakota fighters surrendered shortly after the Battle of Wood Lake at Camp Release on September 26, 1862. The place was so-named because it was the site where 269 captives of the Dakota were released to the troops commanded by Col. Henry Sibley. The captives included 162 "mixed-bloods" and 107 whites, mostly women and children. Most of the Dakotas guilty of war crimes, however, left before Sibley arrived at Camp Release. The surrendered Dakota warriors were held until military trials took place in November 1862.

Little Crow was forced to retreat sometime in September 1862. He stayed briefly in Canada but soon returned to the Minnesota area. He was killed on July 3, 1863 near Hutchinson, Minnesota while gathering raspberries with his teenage son. The pair had wandered onto the land of white settler Nathan Lamson, who shot at them to collect bounties. Once it was discovered that the body was of Little Crow, his skull and scalp were put on display in St. Paul, Minnesota, where they remained until 1971. For killing Little Crow, Lamson was granted an additional $500 bounty, while Little Crow's son received a death sentence that was commuted to a prison term.

In early December, 303 Sioux prisoners were convicted of murder and rape by military tribunals and sentenced to death. Some trials lasted less than 5 minutes, and the proceedings neither were explained to the defendants, nor were the Sioux represented in court. President Abraham Lincoln personally reviewed the trial records, and he attempted to distinguish between those who had engaged in warfare against the United States versus those who had committed the crimes of rape and murder against civilians.

Henry Whipple, the Episcopal bishop of Minnesota and a reformer of U.S. policies towards Native Americans, urged Lincoln to proceed with leniency. Lincoln commuted the death sentences of 264 prisoners and allowed the execution of 39 others. One of the 39 condemned prisoners was granted a reprieve. The 38 remaining prisoners were executed by hanging on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota, in what remains the largest mass execution in American history.

The mass execution was performed publicly on a single scaffold platform. Regimental surgeons pronounced the prisoners dead, and they then were buried en masse in a trench in the sand of the riverbank. Before they were buried, however, an unknown person nicknamed “Dr. Sheardown” possibly removed some of the prisoners' skin. Small boxes purportedly containing the skin later were sold in Mankato.

Medical Aftermath
Because of high demand for cadavers for anatomical study, several doctors requested the bodies after the execution. The grave was re-opened and the bodies were distributed among local doctors, a practice that was common in that era. The doctor who received the body of Mahpiya Okinajin (He Who Stands in Clouds) was William Worrall Mayo.

Years later, Mayo brought the body of Mahpiya Okinajin to Le Sueur, Minnesota, where Mayo dissected it in the presence of medical colleagues. Afterward, the skeleton was cleaned, dried and varnished, and Mayo kept it in an iron kettle in his home office. The identifiable remains of Mahpiya Okinajin and other Native Americans later were returned by the Mayo Clinic to a Dakota tribe for reburial per the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

The remaining convicted Indians stayed in prison that winter. The following spring, they were transferred to Rock Island, Illinois where they were held in prison for almost four years. By the time of their release, one third of the prisoners had died of disease. The survivors were sent with their families to Nebraska, who already had been expelled from Minnesota.

During this time, more than 1600 Dakota women, children, and old men were held in an internment camp on Pike Island, near Fort Snelling, Minnesota. Living conditions were poor, and disease struck the camp, killing more than three hundred. In April 1863, the United States Congress abolished the reservation, declared all previous treaties with the Dakota null and void, and undertook proceedings to expel the Dakota people entirely from Minnesota. To this end, a bounty of $25 per scalp was placed on any Dakota found free within the boundaries of the state. The only exception to this legislation applied to 208 Mdewakanton who remained neutral or assisted white settlers in the conflict. In May of 1863, the survivors were forced aboard steamboats and relocated to Crow Creek, in the southeastern Dakota Territory, a place stricken by drought at the time. The survivors of Crow Creek were moved three years later to the Santee Reservation in Nebraska

The Minnesota River valley and surrounding upland prairie areas were abandoned by most settlers during the war. Many of the families who fled their farms and homes as refugees never returned. Following the American Civil War, however, the area had been resettled and returned to an agricultural area by the mid-1870s.

The Lower Sioux Indian Reservation was reestablished at the site of the Lower Sioux Agency near Morton, and in the 1930s the even smaller Upper Sioux Indian Reservation was established near Granite Falls. Although some Dakota opposed the war, most were also expelled from Minnesota, including those who attempted to assist settlers. The Yankton Sioux chief Struck by the Ree deployed some of his warriors to this effect, but was not judged friendly enough to be allowed to remain in the state immediately after the war. However, by the 1880s a number of Dakota had moved back to the Minnesota River valley, notably the Goodthunder, Wabasha, Bluestone, and Lawrence families. They were joined by Dakota families who had been living under the protection of bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple and the trader Alexander Faribault.

It is all about the Spirit of the Warrior.....

A Toke A Day....

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 15

Elder's Meditation of the Day December 15
"People are equal partners with the plants and animals, not their masters who exploit them."
--Haida Gwaii, Traditional Circle of Elders
As human beings, we are not above anything nor are we below anything. Because of being equal, we need to discuss a little about the value of respect. Not just respect when it comes to human beings, but respect when it comes to everything. We are not masters over things; we are caretakers for the Great Spirit. We need to treat all things with respect.
Great Spirit, let me accept and see all things as equal.

December 15, 1890 Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull is killed

December 15, 1890 Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull is killed on Standing Rock Indian Reservation, leading to the Wounded Knee Massacre. — with Roger Denedragon.